Three types of bonds

Bonds are a hot topic these days. Bonds are not only popular when markets go through significant corrections but it’s tough not to be intrgiued with this conservative asset class when you look at the returns of bonds compared to stock over the past 10 years.

Bond Returns vs. Stocks 1988 – 2019


A significant reason for the strong consistent returns in the bond market over the past 10 years is the interest rate environment. Interest rates have been low for last 10 to 15 years. When interest rates or bond yields fall, bond prices and values go up. When interest rates or bond yields go up, bond prices and values fall.

Related article: The basics of bonds

Bonds are an asset class that arguably should be in everyone’s portfolio and not all bonds are the same. Here are three distinct types of bonds:

Government bonds

Government bonds are the most common type of bond and are issues by different levels of government. There are Federal Government Bonds, Provincial bonds and municipal bonds.

Because these bonds are issued by the government, they are considered the safest type of bond. Government bonds are ‘safe’ because the likelihood of default is small.

Corporate bonds

Corporate bonds are the same as government bonds except that companies issue them instead of governments. Companies can issue bonds just as it can issue stocks. Corporate bonds are a popular way for companies to raise capital. Instead of borrowing from the banks, Bonds are a way of borrowing from investors.

Corporate bonds are considered higher risk than government bonds because there is a greater chance they will default on their debt. As a result interest rates on corporate bonds are almost always higher than the rates on government bonds.

For more information on Corporate Bonds: Understanding Corporate and High Yield Bonds

Real Return Bonds

Real Return Bonds (RRB) are very unique because they offer inflation protection that ordinary bonds cannot provide. Similar to government and corporate bonds, Real Return Bonds pay out a coupon but in addition to the coupon, there is an additional bonus as there is an incremental payment based on the level of inflation (CPI).

Many people criticize bonds and other fixed income investments as vehicles that do not do a good job fighting inflation because of low interest rates and inefficient taxation.

This is not true for real return bonds because they are an inflation hedge. Because of the additional inflation premium for real return bonds, the returns can go up as inflation goes up.

For more information on Real Return Bonds: Understanding Real Return Bonds

Which bond is best?

When buying bonds, there is no such thing as best. Different bonds work better for different situations, different investors and for different needs. The most prudent thing to do is diversify your bond holding just like you would diversify your equity holdings. Holding some of each protect you from holding the wrong type of bond at the wrong time.

Related Article: Three ways to buy bonds


  1. jlcollinsnh

    very nicely done overview, Jim.

    As your chart shows, they’ve been a profitable sea of calm this stormy past decade.

    In my view, that’s their role. To smooth the ride.

    But with interest rates this low it is hard to see how they continue to perform from here. seems they now have a whole new level of risk.

    • Jim Yih

      Well said! I could not agree more.
      Even if rates rise, a slow steady climb may not have as big of an impact on bond values as some people are scared of. I would hate to see people sell off all their bonds in fear of rising interest rates.
      Thanks for commenting

  2. Gail South

    Does anyone know how to cash in a 1947 War Savings Bond? No one seems to have this information available. We have written to banks, and the government, but with no response. These are supposedly worth their face value at least but not if one cannot turn them in. If anyone has info, please let us know? Thx!

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